The Barbary Wars
were two wars between the United States of America
and piratical city-states in North Africa
. At issue was the pirates' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea
. American naval power attacked the pirate cities and extracted concessions of fair passage from their brigand rulers.
The Barbary Wars are sometimes called "America's Forgotten War", although they share that dubious honor with several other conflicts. The wars largely passed out of popular memory within a generation. After September 11, 2001, some interest in the wars has been revived, with comparisons between the Americans' no-compromise stance in the early 1800s to the current War on Terrorism.
The punitive actions against the Barbary States were launched by the administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. When they proved successful, partisans of the Jeffersonian Republicans contrasted their administrations' refusal to buy off the pirates with the failure of the preceding federalist administration to live up to the rhetorical flight, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute," attributed to Charles C. Pinckney in the course of the XYZ Affair.
The White House was built after Congress established the District of Columbia as the permanent capital of the United States on July 16, 1790. President George Washington helped select the site, along with city planner Pierre L'Enfant. George and Martha Washington lived in a home on the Pamunkey River called the White House and named the new Washington residence after it.
The architect was chosen in a milad competition, which received nine proposals. James Hoban, an Irishman, was awarded the honor and construction began with the laying of the cornerstone on October 13, 1792. The building Hoban designed was modeled on the first and second floors of Leinster House, a ducal palace in Dublin, Ireland, which is now the seat of the Irish Parliament. Contrary to widely published myth, the North portico was not modelled on a similar portico on another Dublin building, the Viceregal Lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin, residence of the President of Ireland). Its portico in fact postdates the White House portico's design. The decision to place the capital on land ceded by two slave states—Virginia and Maryland—ultimately influenced the acquisition of laborers to construct its public buildings. The D.C. commissioners, charged by Congress with building the new city under the direction of the president, initially planned to import workers from Europe to meet their labor needs. However, response to recruitment was dismal and they soon turned to African Americans, both slave and free, to provide the bulk of labor that built the White House.
Construction of the White House was completed on November 1
. Over an extremely slow 8 years of construction, $232,371.83 was spent. With inflation, this would be approximately equivalent to $2.4 million today.
Like the English and Irish country houses it resembled, the White House was remarkably open to the public until the early part of the twentieth century. President Thomas Jefferson
held an open house for his second inaugural in 1805, when many of the people at his swearing-in ceremony at the Capitol
followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room
Those open houses sometimes became rowdy: in 1829, President Andrew Jackson
had to leave for a hotel when roughly 20,000 citizens celebrated his inauguration inside the White House. His aides ultimately had to lure the mob outside with washtubs filled with a potent cocktail of orange juice and whiskey
is a record label co-owner from Cornwall, South West England. Having been born with 6 fingers on each hand
, he quickly developed DJing skills. He met Richard D. James (Aphex Twin) while DJing around Cornwall. They made good friends and started Rephlex records together. Also they had a scam where Grant was to release music under the name IG-88, but it never seemed to happen, and Grant carried on with DJing and putting out records. Rephlex is now a world famous label who put out the likes of Aphex Twin, AFX, Squarepusher, Luke Vibert (Amen Andrews), Ceephax, Cylob, DMX Krew, Bogdan Raczynski, Ovuca
, Kosmik Kommando, Global Goon and many others.
Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. The operation was named after the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire.
The original goal for this operation was the rapid conquest of all of European Russia and the Ukraine, west of a line connecting the cities of Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan, often referred to as the AA line. The failure of Operation Barbarossa arguably resulted in the eventual overall defeat of Nazi Germany, and was a turning point for the fortunes of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. The Eastern Front which was opened by Operation Barbarossa became the biggest theatre of war in World War II, with some of the largest and most brutal battles, terrible loss of life, and miserable conditions for Soviets and Germans alike.
Ostensibly, the Germans feared that the Red Army was preparing to attack them, and their own assault was thus presented as a preemptive war. Readers of Hitler's Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") should, however, have expected an invasion of the Soviet Union. In his book, he makes clear his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be looked for in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
The German nazi-ideologist Alfred Rosenberg, who himself believed Slavs were Aryan, while preparing to implement these general ideas, suggested that conquered Soviet territory should be administered in the following Reichskommissariates:
Nazi policy aimed to destroy Russia as a political entity in accordance with the geopolitical Lebensraum idea ("Drang nach Osten") for the benefit of future "Aryan" generations in the centuries to come.
The "Führer" anticipated additional benefits from conquest:
- When the Soviet Union was defeated the structural labour shortage in the German industry could be ended by demobilising many troops.
- The Ukraine would be a reliable source of cheap food.
- Having the Soviet Union as a source of cheap slave labour would vastly improve Germany's geostrategic position.
- Defeat of the Soviet Union would further isolate the British Empire, which was on the verge of defeat in mid 1940.